Oops I meant to type gigabit not gigabyte.
On Sep 10, 2012, at 4:49 PM, Jason Greene <jason.greene(a)redhat.com> wrote:
On and off for the past couple of weeks I have been working on the file serving
implementation in undertow. This lead to lots and lots of benchmarking, which in turn lead
to a lot of bug and perf fixes in various areas of the web server and xnio.
The outcome that seems to work the best for what we have available in Java NIO is a
caching / sendfile mix approach. The maintenance of the cache is completely non-blocking
and relies on a modified concurrent direct deque, which lets us delete in the middle. This
allows an access list to be stored. In order to further reduce possible contention, we
sample access at 5 request intervals (requests % 5 = do stuff).
Blocking transfer process (default)
1. If entry is cached jump to non-blocking cached transfer process
2. Otherwise kick off the file operations to a task on a worker thread
3. If this is a head operation, the task simply executes a stat call and returns the
appropriate details. (Note that stat calls can block [metadata read], which is why
it's done the same as a transfer [in a workerthread])
4. If the file has not been accessed at least 5 times recently, or there is no cache
space, or it is too big of a file, then it is then transferred in a blocking mode using
FileChannel.transferTo, which under the hood uses sendfile, or other OS file transfer
5. Otherwise the file is buffered and cached and then transferred using scattering
writes. The caching process will attempt to reclaim "older" cache base following
an LRU like approach.
Non-blocking transfer process (when cached)
1. All cache entries are stored in blocks (slices) within a big direct memory buffer.
This uses native memory outside of the Xmx settings of Java, and has the advantage that it
can be written directly to a socket without copying.
2. When they are retrieved they are reference counted as a group to prevent reclamation
from corrupting the to be transferred state.
3. The buffers are attempted to be written in one scattering write unless the socket send
4. If the send buffer is full, an event listener is registered, and will be executed in
async non-blocking fashion later
5. The remaining portion, if any is transferred, and the ref counts are restored
On a dual-core intel i7 system (Stuart's laptop), we easily get over 100k requests
per second on small files (808 bytes) using the loopback device. Testing a variety of
sizes we overall push around 1 gigabytes a seconds. My older core 2 quad system (Q6700
CPU) does around 80k eps and around 700-800 MB/s. There are some limitations we run into
with the load driver (currently using httperf). Httperf can only use one CPU, so http
pipelining (sending multiple requests on the same connection) is necessary to drive that
level of load. Performance scales well with a large number of connections. I can drive
close to the same traffic with 10k connections, but the connection setup time and
maintenance adds a bit of cost.
Another interesting aspect is OS overhead. Tomaz was able to improve his results by using
an ethernet adapter over a loopback, and multiple hosts. This is likely because the TCP
stack was half as busy. Also connection tracking in iptables has a big effect (almost
5-6%), so disabling it helps quite a bit
Future Research Possibilities
It appears we could support AIO and non-blocking logic across the board if we wrote
native code that uses the linux kernel interfaces. A big problem is that the filesystem
must support non-blocking operations, and most don't across the board. XFS appears to
though, so it might be worth exploring AIO on XFS. We would still want to cache like above
hough, because the interface only works with unbuffered direct i/o. The big thing we would
be saving is that context switch for the hand off.
NIO also does some unnecessary locking due to its API design, that we have measured an
impact for under contention. At some point we could consider writing a simple portable
native backend for XNIO, which bypassed all of that. IMO we still need very good perf on
standard NIO, so should keep the focus on that for now.
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